New Technique for Knee Replacement
There are two ways to perform a total knee replacement: The traditional approach and the newer minimally-invasive (sometimes called quadriceps-sparing) approach.
Nerve grafts are used when a patient has a nerve injury resulting in complete loss of muscle function or sensation.
A nerve graft is a surgical technique in which a segment of unrelated nerve is used to replace or bridge an injured portion of nerve. The donor nerve serves as a “track” along which axons can grow down to the target area.
Also known as Degenerative Arthritis or Degenerative Joint disease or Osteoarthrosis, is the most common joint disorder, which is due to aging and wear and tear on a joint.
Normal Joint Functioning
In a normal joint, bones have a smooth, glistening surface made of a substance called Articular Cartilage on their ends that allows one bone to glide easily against another.
Joints are lubricated by a thin layer of fluid (synovial fluid) that acts like oil in an engine to keep moving parts gliding smoothly.
Total shoulder replacement, also known as total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), is a tremendously successful procedure for treating the severe pain and stiffness that often result at the end stage of various forms of arthritis or degenerative joint disease of the shoulder joint.
The primary goal of shoulder replacement surgery is pain relief, with a secondary benefit of restoring motion, strength, and function.
NEED FOR SHOULDER REPLACEMENT :
Doctors recommend joint replacement surgery when shoulder pain and loss of function become severe and when medicines and other treatments no longer relieve pain.
The surgery involves replacing the humeral head (or joint “ball”) and the glenoid (called the “socket”).
Anatomy of the shoulder area, depicting the implant
after surgery. Partial shoulder replacement (or hemi-replacement) may also be indicated with certain severe shoulder fractures of the humeral head. This technique requires the replacement of that component only.
A total hip replacement (THR) – also called a Hip Arthroplasty- is a surgical procedure that re-forms the hip joint. In THR, the head of the femur (the bone that extends from the hip to the knee) is removed along with the surface layer of the socket in the pelvis (the two large bones that rest on the lower limbs and support the spinal column).
Functioning Of Hip Joint:
The hip is a ball-and-socket joint comprised of the following structures:
Head of the femur
Acetabulum of the pelvis
Ligaments of the hip joint
The head of the femur or “ball” of the hip joint articulates or moves within the cup-like “socket” called the acetabulum of the pelvic bone. Together, these structures are referred to as a “ball and socket” joint. The femoral head and acetabulum are covered by a specialized surface called articular cartilage. This allows smooth and painless motion of the hip joint.
The Knee is the largest joint in the body. Normal knee function is very important to perform day today activities. Knee is made up of the lower end of thigh bones (femur) which rotates on the upper end of the shin bone (tibia) and the knee cap which slides in a groove on the end of the femur.
The Joint surface is covered with a smooth substance that cushions the bones and enables them to move easily. All remaining surfaces of the knee are covered by a thin, smooth tissue liner .This is membrane releases a special fluid that lubricates the knee, reducing friction to nearly zero in a healthy knee. Normally, all of this mechanism works in harmony. But disease or injury can create disorder in this harmony, resulting in pain, muscle weakness, and reduced function.
Functioning Of Knee Joint:
The knee joint performs similar to a hinge joint. It consists of three bones:
Thigh bone (Femur)
Leg bone (Tibia)
Knee cap (Patella)
The junction where the femur and tibia couple together is called the femorotibial joint. The region of the knee where the patella and femur form a junction is called the patella femoral joint. These two joints are what allow the bending and straightening of the knee. It is these joints that are replaced in a total knee joint replacement.